Review of heavy metal ion removal from wastewater

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Vikas Netam, Shilpi Shrivastava


For a healthy ecosystem and human population, removing heavy metal ion from wastewater is crucial.To remove heavy metal ions from different sources of, various reported procedures are developed. Thedifferent techniques are classified asmembrane based, adsorption based, photo catalysis based, andchemical based therapies. Usage of agents and adsorbents, removal effectiveness, operationalcircumstances, and each method's benefits and drawbacks are all thoroughly and critically reviewed inthis work. In addition, a summary is provided of the major conclusions of earlier investigations thatwere published in the literature. Further advancements in membrane separation might be made withfouling and scaling inhibition. Pre-treatment and routine membranes cleaning, however, are moreexpensive. Additionally to address the concern related to the formation of large volumes of sludge,technologies based on electrics were also claimed to be effective. Nevertheless, separations based onlarge scales or a scale of industries is also required. When research on exclusion of heavy metalsconsidered, prominence on use of actual water for the experimental should be focused instead of usingsynthetic wastewaters. Eco-friendly, economical, and sustainable materials and processes should bethe main topics of future research investigations.

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